Modelling tools

Models developed at LPC2E:



PLUME-CHEM is an atmospheric chemistry box model specialised in the reactive halogen chemsitry of volcanic plumes. Written in Mathematica the model can represent the plume as an expanding (diluting) box, or simulate plume dispersion and chemistry across multiple grid-boxes. Key aims of developing this model have been to understand the observed formation of BrO and OClO in volcanic plumes and make some first predictions of their impacts, e.g. destruction of tropospheric ozone and conversion of NOx into HNO3. Being highly flexible in its set-up and computationally inexpensive, Plume-Chem is a useful tool to guide the development and initialisation of much larger regional-global models.

Contact : Tjarda Roberts

Reference : Roberts et al., Chem. Geol. 2009 ; ACP, 2014 ; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2018 ; Kelly et al., JVGR, 2013


Global transport and climate chemistry models:


– CESM : Community Earth System Model

      WACCM : Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

      CARMA Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres


We use the WACCM model coupled with the CARMA sectional aerosol model within the Earth CESM model to study the impact of recent moderate volcanic eruptions (Volcanic Explosive Index >4).

Contact : F. Jégou

Site de référence :


– REPROBUS : Reactive Processes Ruling the Ozone Budget in the Stratosphere

      It is a semi-Lagrangian transport chemistry model developed at LATMOS including a complete chemical code of reactions controlling the stratospheric ozone balance and forced by offline meteorological fields from analyses or forecasts. Chemical species are initialized by long-term simulations of a Chemistry-Climate model. The model is used for studies on stratospheric ozone depletion processes, global stratospheric chemistry and the chemical impact of volcanic eruptions. The radiative impact is not taken into account in this type of model.

Contact : Gwenaël Berthet


Website ::


– LMDz-INCA-ORCHIDEE : Chemistry-climate model coupling the general circulation model LMDz, the chemistry-aerosols model INCA and the continental biogeochemistry model ORCHIDEE.

We used these 3 coupled mode models to estimate the impact of climate change on GHG emissions from sphagnum peatlands in high latitudes and their feedback on climate.

Contact : Fabrice Jégou



Lagrangian and transport models:



MIMOSA was developed at LATMOS/IPSL to represent the origin of medium- and long-life components (polar, mid-latitude, tropical) (Hauchecorne et al., 2000) that are mainly transported in the lower stratosphere along isentropic surfaces. These constituents are well correlated with PV in large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and exchanges often occur in the form of filaments. The quantity calculated by MIMOSA is different from the dynamic PV from the European centre of the ECMWF, there is no PV forecast calculation in the ECMWF model, this quantity is diagnostic. MIMOSA explicitly advects the PV contours, the PV field having been initialized from the ECMWF fields. This initial PV contains the information of the origin of the air mass and if a filament is formed it will carry both the components and the MIMOSA advected PV. The PV diagnosed by ECMWF from the U, V and T fields represents large-scale structures well, but quickly loses information in the case of filaments due to dynamic and radiative processes on a small scale. MIMOSA’s advected PV, on the other hand, preserves the information well and better represents the transport of constituents in the case of exchanges between different air masses by keeping the history of the origin of the air masses.

Contact : Gwenaël Berthet


– FLEXPART & FLEXTRA : FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model

Contact : Gisèle Krysztofiak-Tong



  • Regional and box models:


– WRF-CHEM : Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry

In work led by a Marie-Sklodowska Curie Fellow (L. Surl) at LPC2E in collaboration with LATMOS we are developing the WRF-CHEM model to include detailed multi-phase halogen and sulfur chemistry processes in volcanic plumes in order to compare to satellite observations and assess tropospheric impacts of volcanic emissions on local up to regional scales.

Contact : Tjarda Roberts



– TUV : Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible

Contact : F. Jégou



HSC :  Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software HSC is a commercial model that has been used in the field of volcanology to represent the high-temperature chemistry of the plume-air mixture near-to-source, that produces radicals that are aerosol precursors and that can act to ‘kickstart’ chemistry cycles in the low-temperature plume. The HSC model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium. In collaboration with G. Dayma, ICARE (Institut de Combustion Aérothermique Réactivité et Environnement) our OSUC partner, we are developing kinetics-based approaches to simulate the high-temperature chemistry of the volcanic plume, using ChemKin model.

Contact : Tjarda Roberts    website :–services/HSC-Chemistry/